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Volume 39(1); March 2024
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Review articles
Clinical challenges and advancements in diagnosing Staphylococcus aureus-associated musculoskeletal infections
Irvin Oh
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):5-17.   Published online March 22, 2024
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Musculoskeletal infections (MSKI) present a significant health challenge, with a rising incidence linked to the aging population and advancements in orthopedic surgical care. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen associated with orthopedic infections. The conventional culture method for identification of pathogen frequently lacks accuracy and is challenged by false-positive or false-negative results. Inflammatory markers such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not site-specific or accurate, as they can be confounded by other medical conditions. Identifying the dominant pathogen and monitoring treatment response following surgical debridement and antibiotics therapy continues to pose challenges. Understanding the pathogenesis of MSKI is crucial for the development of innovative diagnostics and alternative therapeutics. S. aureus immune evasion stands out as a key component of the pathogenic mechanism, complicating clinical decisions. Other unique mechanisms such as biofilm and abscess formation, as well as osteocyte-lacuno canalicular network invasion, underscore the need for aggressive debridement and the complete removal of infected implants and bone tissues. Ongoing efforts focus on exploring and developing innovative diagnostics, such as serum immunoassays, next-generation sequencing of infected tissue, transcriptomics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and serum proteomics. These endeavors offer promising avenues for improved diagnostics, medical management, and innovative therapeutics for MSKI.
Exploring the nexus between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and colorectal cancer
Jong Yoon Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):18-25.   Published online March 12, 2024
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The increasing global prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Obesity and MetS detrimentally impact the treatment outcomes of CRC and share similar mechanisms that contribute to the development of CRC. Increased insulin resistance in patients with obesity is linked to CRC, and altered levels of sex hormones and adipokines affect cell growth and inflammation. Obesity and MetS also alter the gut microbiome. Bile acids, which are crucial for lipid metabolism, are elevated in patients with obesity. Moreover, specific bile acids are associated with colonic damage, inflammation, and the development of CRC. Obesity and MetS increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect the response to chemotherapy. The promotion of weight loss and the resolution of MetS can reduce the occurrence of CRC and increase treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is imperative to implement appropriate management strategies to address obesity and MetS with the aim of improving the prognosis and reducing the incidence of CRC. Moreover, additional research should be conducted to determine the optimal timing for tailored CRC screening in patients with obesity or MetS. In this review, we explore the impact of obesity and MetS on the development of CRC and examine potential strategies to mitigate CRC risk in individuals with obesity and MetS.
Gastric cancer and metabolic syndrome
Hyeong Ho Jo
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):26-34.   Published online March 22, 2024
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gastric cancer (GC), a prevalent disease in Asian countries, presents a substantial global health challenge. The risk factors for GC include Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, smoking, alcohol, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review meticulously examines the intricate connections between MetS and GC, focusing on visceral adipocytes, hormonal factors, obesity, and their impact on survival outcomes. Visceral adipocytes, which secrete inflammatory cytokines and hormones, play a pivotal role in influencing cancer development. Hormonal factors demonstrate nuanced associations with specific GC subtypes, underscoring the complexity of their impact. Large-scale studies exploring obesity-related factors reveal sex-specific nuances and underscore the importance of considering overall weight and body composition. Furthermore, the review explores the impact of eradication therapy for H. pylori infection, which is the most significant factor in the onset of GC, on the components of MetS. Additionally, the influence of MetS on postoperative outcomes and survival in GC patients highlights the interplay between therapeutic interventions and lifestyle factors. This comprehensive exploration sheds light on the multifaceted relationship between MetS and GC, providing valuable insights for future research and preventive strategies.
Original articles
Effects of cholecalciferol and omega-3 fatty acids on hepcidin levels in 5/6 nephrectomy rats
Yu In Jeong, Hyo Jin Jung, Mi Hwa Lee, Young Ki Son, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An, Su Mi Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):35-43.   Published online September 25, 2023
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD-related anemia, an inverse relationship between vitamin D and hepcidin levels has been observed. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, mediated via binding to ferroportin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on hepcidin levels using 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham control, 5/6 Nx, 5/6 Nx treated with cholecalciferol, 5/6 Nx treated with omega-3 FA, and 5/6 Nx treated with both cholecalciferol and omega-3 FA. We measured the hepcidin and ferroportin levels in the kidney and liver by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blots. We evaluated hepcidin expression in the kidney by immunohistochemical staining.
Among the five groups, 5/6 Nx rats exhibited the worst kidney function. Compared with the sham controls, 5/6 Nx rats showed significantly increased serum hepcidin levels and decreased vitamin D levels. Supplementation with either omega-3 FA or cholecalciferol decreased hepcidin and increased vitamin D levels, with a concurrent improvement of anemia. Furthermore, 5/6 Nx rats treated with omega-3 FA/cholecalciferol showed decreased ferroportin and ferritin levels, while iron and total iron-binding capacity levels increased.
Treatment with a combination of cholecalciferol and omega-3 FA may improve anemia in a CKD rat model by decreasing hepcidin levels.
Human resources and medical supplies consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic: a single-center study
Hye Jin Park, Yu Bin Seo, Jin Ju Park, Sun Hee Na, Jacob Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):44-50.   Published online September 14, 2023
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In the face of the unexpected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, every country has struggled with insufficient human resources and medical supplies. This study aims to provide the statistical information necessary for discussing how to model stockpiles of medical resources.
This study was conducted at the Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, in South Korea. The study duration was 2 weeks, centered on March 16, 2022, when the number of daily confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Korea peaked. The number of human resources was obtained by counting the number of healthcare workers using CCTV. Drug prescriptions and medical device usage were obtained from electronic medical records.
In total, 117 inpatients and 26,485 outpatients were managed at this hospital during the 2-week study period. Daily visits were highest among nurses in all units, followed by doctors and radiology technicians. The mean daily consumption of personal protective equipment (PPE) per bed was 4.3 sets in the intensive care unit (ICU), 1.8 in the semi-ICU, and 1.4 in the ward. Despite the four-fold difference in the number of patients, there was no statistically significant difference between the two wards in the number of daily visits. Drug prescription rates were higher among inpatients than at-home patients.
The higher the COVID-19 severity, the higher the consumption of PPE per patient. Among healthcare workers, nurses had the highest number of inpatient treatment visits for COVID-19. To efficiently utilize, PPE, structures containing more isolation beds in a single negative pressure isolation system would be preferred.
Clinical efficacy and safety of autologous serum intramuscular injection in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study
Gil-Soon Choi, Jong Bin Park, Young-Ho Kim, Hee-Kyoo Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):51-59.   Published online March 19, 2024
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Autologous blood therapy (ABT) has been used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) for over a century, even though evidence supporting its efficacy is lacking. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of autologous serum intramuscular injection (ASIM), which is a modified form of ABT, in treating mild-to-moderate AD.
This study was a 12-week, open-label, prospective, uncontrolled trial. Following a 4-week run-in period, 22 out of 25 screened patients received ASIM once a week for 4 weeks in conjunction with standard treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), while the secondary outcomes included the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), and patient ratings of pruritus, sleep difficulty, disease status, and treatment effectiveness. Safety parameters were also assessed.
EASI scores showed a non-statistically significant trend toward improvement during ASIM intervention. Patients with at least a 50% improvement in the EASI score at 4 weeks were older and had lower peripheral eosinophil counts (p<0.05). Secondary endpoints, including the SCORAD score, pruritus, sleep difficulty, and DLQI, demonstrated statistically significant improvements at week 4 compared to baseline (p<0.05). No significant adverse reactions were observed.
This pioneering study suggests that repeated ASIM may improve the clinical symptoms of mild-to-moderate AD, particularly in terms of pruritus and overall quality of life. However, further research with a larger sample size is required to establish the clinical significance of these findings.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What are the clinical usefulness and scientific value of intramuscular injection of autologous serum (autologous serum therapy) in patients with atopic dermatitis?
    Dong-Ho Nahm
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(1): 1.     CrossRef
Case reports
Primary gastric leiomyosarcoma: a case report and literature review
Yedaun Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):60-65.   Published online August 18, 2023
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
After separating gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors from true smooth muscle tumors of the GI tract, leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the GI tract has become a rare tumor. Gastric LMS is extremely rare and accounts for 0.1% of all cases of LMS in the GI tract. There are few English-language reports of gastric LMS describing radiologic findings. Here, we report a case of gastric LMS and review the recent literature focusing on radiologic findings. An 80-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation of a gastric mass accompanied by severe anemia. The physical examination revealed no specific findings except for an anemic conjunctiva. Laboratory data showed a low hemoglobin level of 5.1 g/dL. Endoscopy revealed a huge subepithelial mass in the posterior wall of the gastric body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images showed an intraluminal protruding enhancing mass with an internal stalk appearance in the gastric body. There was no internal necrosis or calcification. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy and was diagnosed with primary gastric LMS. The diagnosis of gastric LMS is challenging due to its rarity. Our case report suggests that the presence of an internal stalk or spouting appearance can help prompt the radiologist to consider gastric LMS in the differential diagnosis.
Heterotopic ovarian hilus cells of the salpinx: a case report and literature review
Bomi Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):66-70.   Published online September 12, 2023
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Abstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Ovarian hilus cells (OHCs), a counterpart of testicular Leydig cells, are usually found in the ovarian poles and produce androstenedione. Their origin remains a matter of debate, although OHCs are assumed to come from the adrenogenital primordium. OHCs are rarely observed around the poles of the ovary, including the mesoovarium, stroma (perisalpinx) of the salpinx, and the wall of paratubal cysts. Their clinical and pathological characteristics are not well-known because of their rarity. Herein, we present a case of ectopic OHCs in a 48-year-old woman. The patient underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for vaginal bleeding due to multiple leiomyomas. We incidentally found OHCs in the stroma of the infundibulum of the salpinx, just beneath the tubal epithelium. Their size was less than 1 mm, and they were composed of large cells with central round nuclei and abundant clear or granular cytoplasm. OHCs share morphological and immunohistochemical profiles with ectopic adrenal glands, and the differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. They do not exhibit microscopic encapsulation or the normal adrenal cortex zonation pattern. The patient was discharged and did not show any abnormal findings during 19 months of follow-up. Analyzing the characteristics of testicular Leydig cells will help understand how OHCs develop and why heterotopic OHCs occur in and around the salpinges.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with a pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a case report
Nam Kyung Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):71-74.   Published online August 17, 2023
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is very rare. No reports have described SCC accompanied by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. This report presents the first known case of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas in a 71-year-old man, with a focus on radiologic findings. Here, the imaging features of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas were similar to those of IPMN of the pancreas with high-risk stigmata features.
Surgical management of giant adrenal myelolipoma using a modified Makuuchi incision: a case report
Byeong Jin Kang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Kyoungha Jang, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hong Koo Ha
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):75-79.   Published online December 14, 2023
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Giant adrenal myelolipomas are rare, benign, and hormonally inactive tumors. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with a 19-cm retroperitoneal mass, initially suspected to be a retroperitoneal liposarcoma, angiomyolipoma, or adrenal myelolipoma. After conducting endocrine assessments, which were within normal ranges, we decided to perform surgical excision using a modified Makuuchi incision. The tumor was successfully removed, and the final pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma. The patient was discharged with no complications and remained without disease recurrence or distant metastasis as of 1 year postoperatively. In conclusion, giant myelolipomas are rare and cause symptoms owing to their large size. Surgical removal is recommended for large or symptomatic myelolipomas. The modified Makuuchi incision allows efficient and safe tumor removal in open surgery for giant myelolipomas.

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal