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From articles published since 2020.

Original articles
Incidence of arterial steno-occlusive disease and related factors in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Seong Gyu Kim, Geun Woo Lee, Chul Ho Lee
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(2):140-145.   Published online June 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.104
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
Patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery receive regular physical examinations and medications on an outpatient basis. However, these patients are at risk of developing other vascular diseases, such as postoperative arterial steno-occlusive disease (SOD). This study investigated the incidence of SOD and related factors.
Methods
In total, 246 patients who underwent CABG surgery from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2021 were investigated. The incidence and risk factors of vascular disease were analyzed by dividing the included patients into SOD and non-SOD groups. Laboratory tests, medical history, surgical information, and family history were investigated through an electronic chart review.
Results
Data from 193 patients who met the criteria were analyzed. SOD occurred in 19.1% of patients, and the cerebral artery (38%) was the most common artery involved, followed by the peripheral artery (32%), the coronary artery (22%), and the retinal artery (8%). Risk factors for the development of SOD included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; odds ratio [OR]=0.977, p=0.008), cholesterol (OR=1.020, p=0.001), and patients with diabetes complications (OR=5.077, p=0.010). The 3-year cumulative incidence rate was 21.6%, and the risk factors for cumulative occurrence were a low eGFR, elevated cholesterol, and complications of diabetes.
Conclusions
Low eGFR, high cholesterol, and the presence of diabetic complications before CABG surgery may be associated with postoperative vascular disease. In these cases, close monitoring, proper drug administration, and patient warnings may be required.
The effects of ketamine on pain control in stage IV cancer patients receiving palliative care
Seonghoon Kim, Jihun Kang, Jongsoon Choi, Eunhee Kong
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(1):37-45.   Published online March 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.21.003
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
We evaluated the effects of intravenous ketamine on cancer pain in stage IV cancer patients receiving palliative care.
Methods
In total, 253 stage IV cancer patients with cancer pain hospitalized at a single tertiary hospital palliative care unit were included. The ketamine group contained 112 patients receiving ketamine, and the control group comprised 141 non-ketamine users. To evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) for favorable pain control, optimal pain control, and opioid-sparing effect among ketamine users, we used multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age and objective prognosis score. Differences in the visual analog scale (VAS) score, oral morphine equivalents, inter-dose frequency, and inter-dose amount were compared between both groups at the time of ketamine introduction (T0), after 24 hours (T1), and after 48 hours (T2) using repeated-measures analysis of covariance.
Results
The ketamine group was more likely to show favorable pain control (OR, 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76–8.37) and an optimal response (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.73–9.22) than the control group. Compared to the control group, the ketamine group showed a higher VAS score at T0, but a more evident VAS score reduction at T1 and T2 (pint<0.001). The ketamine group was less likely than the control group to experience depressive mood (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10–0.92), but had a higher risk of delirium (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.12–3.91).
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that ketamine can effectively reduce refractory cancer pain in stage IV cancer patients.
Review articles
Psychosomatic Approach to Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Concept, Diagnosis and Treatment
Sang-Shin Lee
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(2):79-99.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2021.36.2.79
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has chronic widespread pain (CWP) as a core symptom and a variety of associated somatic and psychological symptoms such as fatigue, sleep problems, cognitive disturbances, multiple somatic pain, and depression. FMS is the subject of considerable controversy in the realm of nosology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Moreover, the fact that FMS and mental illness are closely associated with each other might intensify the confusion for the distinction between FMS and mental disorders. This narrative literature review aims to provide the concept, diagnosis, and treatment of FMS from the integrative biopsychosocial and psychosomatic perspective. This article first explains the concepts of FMS as a disease entity of biopsychosocial model, and then summarizes the changes of diagnostic criteria over past three decades, differential diagnosis and comorbidity issue focused on mental illnesses. In addition, an overview of treatment of FMS is presented mainly by arranging the recommendations from the international guidelines which have been developed by four official academic associations.

The Roles of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) in Inflammation
Eun-Ji Ko, Hee-Jae Cha
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(2):69-78.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2021.36.2.69
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient, currently inactive, and non-infectious due to recombination, deletions, and mutations in the host genome. However, HERV-derived elements are involved in physiological phenomena including inflammatory response. In recent studies, HERV-derived elements were involved directly in various inflammatory diseases including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Sjogren’s syndrome. Regarding the involvement of HERV-derived elements in inflammation, two possible mechanisms have been proposed. First, HERV-derived elements cause nonspecific innate immune processes. Second, HERV-derived RNA or proteins might stimulate selective signaling mechanisms. However, it is unknown how silent HERV elements are activated in the inflammatory response and what factors and signaling mechanisms are involved with HERV-derived elements. In this review, we introduce HERV-related autoimmune diseases and propose the possible action mechanisms of HERV-derived elements in the inflammatory response at the molecular level.

Original articles
Antinociceptive Effect of BPC-157 in the Formalin-induced Pain Model
Sang Yoong Park, So Ron Choi, Jeong Ho Kim, Seung Cheol Lee, Seong Yeop Jeong, Joon Ho Jeong, Tae Young Lee
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):1-13.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2021.36.1.1
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Objectives

Body protective compound-157 (BPC-157) is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide that has been effective in trials aiming to increase wound healing capabilities and decrease inflammatory cell influx, including studies on the healing of muscles and tendons. There are no studies about the effect of BPC-157 on pain transmission via nociception. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of BPC-157 using formalin tests and immunohistochemistry.

Methods

Rats were randomly divided into the control, morphine and BPC-157 groups. Pain behavior was quantified periodically at 5- and 35- min intervals (representative values of phases 1 and 2) by counting the number of flinches exhibited by the injected paw after injection. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords (SC) were collected, and then, the number of cytokine-positive cells was determined via immunostaining.

Results

BPC-157 dose-dependently decreased the number of flinches during phase 1 but did not decrease the number of flinches during phase 2. During phase 1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the DRG tissue was significantly different in the morphine, 10 μg/kg BPC-157, and 20 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the DRG tissue in the morphine, 20 μg/kg BPC-157, and 40 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 1, interleukin-6 was significantly different in the DRG tissue in the morphine group and the SC tissue in the 10 μg/kg BPC-157 group. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the morphine group and the BPC-157 20 μg/kg group in both the DRG and SC tissues. There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-α between the DRG and SC tissues.

Conclusions

BPC-157 was effective during phase 1 but not during phase 2, as determined by the formalin test. BPC-157 decreased the expression of IL-1β in the DRG tissue in phases 1 and 2.

Effects of White-coat Hypertension on Heart Rate Recovery and Blood Pressure Response during Exercise Test
Sol Jin, Jung Ho Heo, Bong Jun Kim
Kosin Med J. 2020;35(2):89-100.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2020.35.2.89
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Objectives

White-coat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure (BP) on clinical assessment but normal BP elsewhere or on ambulatory measurement. Autonomic dysfunction may be one of the mechanisms causing white-coat hypertension. Slowed heart rate recovery and excessive BP response during exercise test are associated with autonomic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between white-coat hypertension and abnormal autonomic nervous system response.

Methods

We assessed 295 patients stratified into three groups via 24hr ambulatory BP monitoring, following 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines: normal BP group, white-coat hypertension group, and a hypertension group. We analyzed medical history, blood test, echocardiography, 24hr ambulatory BP monitoring, and exercise test data.

Results

There was no difference in basement characteristics and echocardiography among the groups. Blunted heart rate recovery of each group showed a significant difference. Control group had 0% blunted heart rate recovery, but 33.3% in white coat group and 27.6% in true hypertension group (P < 0.001). Also, in the control group, 4.5% showed excessive BP response, but 31.5% in the white coat hypertension group and 29.3% in the true hypertension group (P < 0.001). Excessive BP response during the exercise test or blunted heart rate recovery, which is an indicator of autonomic nervous system abnormality, was more common in the hypertensive group and white-coat hypertension group than in the normal BP group.

Conclusions

These results confirmed that white-coat hypertension has an autonomic nervous system risk. Therefore, white-coat hypertension can be a future cardiovascular risk factor.

Case report
Use of Three-dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography for the Chiari Network
Jeong-Min Hong, Ah-Reum Cho, Seung-Hoon Baik, Dea-Hwan Moon
Kosin Med J. 2020;35(2):151-155.   Published online December 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2020.35.2.151
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

The Chiari network is an embryonic remnant of the sinus venosus valve, which is characterized by a fenestrated, netlike structure in the right atrium and has the potential to be misdiagnosed as another right atrial pathology. Additionally, the Chiari network has been frequently reported to entrap intracardiac devices during surgical procedures. In this case report, we present two patients with a Chiari network confirmed by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, which assisted in preventing device entrapment during intracardiac procedures.


KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal