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From articles published since 2022.

Review articles
Considerations for experimental animal ethics in the research planning and evaluation process
Jaewon Shim, Jeongtae Kim
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(4):271-277.   Published online December 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.139
  • 5,411 View
  • 152 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Research using experimental animals has substantially contributed to advances in science and medicine. Animal experiments are nearly essential for biomedical research and development efforts. Because many animals are sacrificed, researchers should consider the welfare of experimental animals and related ethical issues, along with the successful results of their experiments. This review introduces the criteria that should be considered in terms of experimental animal ethics, based on the principles of the 3 R’s: replacement, representing careful consideration of the need for animal experiments; reduction, representing the use of the minimal number of animals to obtain meaningful experimental results; and refinement, representing continuous effects to find alternative methods to reduce pain and distress in experimental animals. Based on these principles, the following points should be considered when planning experiments: the necessity of animal experiments; alternatives to animal experiments; the relevance of the species and numbers of experimental animals; appropriate assessment and management of pain; the proper usage of sedatives, painkillers, and anesthesia; and valid timing for humane endpoints and euthanasia. These criteria are beneficial for both experimental animals and researchers because careful handling to ensure experimental animal welfare guarantees that scientific research will yield convincing, repeatable, and accurate results.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Functional Analysis of Membrane-Associated Scaffolding Tight Junction (TJ) Proteins in Tumorigenic Characteristics of B16-F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
    Eun-Ji Ko, Do-Ye Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Hyojin An, Jeongtae Kim, Jee-Yeong Jeong, Kyoung Seob Song, Hee-Jae Cha
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(2): 833.     CrossRef
  • General Principles, Designs, and Statistical Analyses in Experimental Animal Studies
    Şengül Cangür
    Düzce Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Ethical issues in clinical research and publication
Hyoung Shin Lee
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(4):278-282.   Published online December 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.132
  • 5,065 View
  • 194 Download
  • 7 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Clinical research including human participants should be based on truth, demonstrate scientific integrity, and follow ethical standards and guidelines to protect study participants. The publication of clinical research should be transparent and adhere to strict criteria for authorship. A thorough understanding and knowledge of ethical issues will limit investigator misconduct in clinical research and publication. In this article, basic ethical issues in clinical research and publication are reviewed and summarized based on recent guidelines.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with a pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a case report
    Nam Kyung Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(1): 71.     CrossRef
  • Clinical efficacy and safety of autologous serum intramuscular injection in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study
    Gil-Soon Choi, Jong Bin Park, Young-Ho Kim, Hee-Kyoo Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(1): 51.     CrossRef
  • Surgical management of giant adrenal myelolipoma using a modified Makuuchi incision: a case report
    Byeong Jin Kang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Kyoungha Jang, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hong Koo Ha
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Evaluating the Potential of Immersive Virtual Reality-Based Serious Games Interventions for Autism: A Pocket Guide Evaluation Framework
    Sara Peretti, Maria Chiara Pino, Federica Caruso, Tania Di Mascio
    Education Sciences.2024; 14(4): 377.     CrossRef
  • Informed Consent in Clinical Studies in the Republic of Srpska
    Snežana Pantović, Dijana Zrnić
    Review of European and Comparative Law.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical outcomes of prostate artery embolization for management of benign prostate hyperplasia (prostate larger than 100 mL) with or without hematuria
    Soodong Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 259.     CrossRef
  • Basic knowledge of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    Jung Wook Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 241.     CrossRef
Original article
Effects of cholecalciferol and omega-3 fatty acids on hepcidin levels in 5/6 nephrectomy rats
Yu In Jeong, Hyo Jin Jung, Mi Hwa Lee, Young Ki Son, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An, Su Mi Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):35-43.   Published online September 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.137
  • 1,939 View
  • 25 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with CKD-related anemia, an inverse relationship between vitamin D and hepcidin levels has been observed. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis, mediated via binding to ferroportin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on hepcidin levels using 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats.
Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham control, 5/6 Nx, 5/6 Nx treated with cholecalciferol, 5/6 Nx treated with omega-3 FA, and 5/6 Nx treated with both cholecalciferol and omega-3 FA. We measured the hepcidin and ferroportin levels in the kidney and liver by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blots. We evaluated hepcidin expression in the kidney by immunohistochemical staining.
Results
Among the five groups, 5/6 Nx rats exhibited the worst kidney function. Compared with the sham controls, 5/6 Nx rats showed significantly increased serum hepcidin levels and decreased vitamin D levels. Supplementation with either omega-3 FA or cholecalciferol decreased hepcidin and increased vitamin D levels, with a concurrent improvement of anemia. Furthermore, 5/6 Nx rats treated with omega-3 FA/cholecalciferol showed decreased ferroportin and ferritin levels, while iron and total iron-binding capacity levels increased.
Conclusions
Treatment with a combination of cholecalciferol and omega-3 FA may improve anemia in a CKD rat model by decreasing hepcidin levels.
Review article
Polycystic liver disease: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Joonho Jeong, Hyun Joon Park
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(2):75-86.   Published online June 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.128
  • 3,313 View
  • 88 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a hereditary disease characterized by the presence of 20 or more liver cysts. It is classified into three types: isolated autosomal dominant PLD, PLD with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and PLD with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Genetic alterations, ciliary dysfunction of the biliary epithelial cells, and aberrant cell signaling pathways are the main factors contributing to the pathophysiology of PLD; however, other complicated mechanisms are also involved. The Gigot and Schnelldorfer classifications are widely used in clinical practice. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic; however, a few patients with advanced-stage disease may develop symptoms and complications that impair their quality of life and require treatment. The known treatment options for PLD are somatostatin analogues, aspiration with sclerotherapy, fenestration, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation. Although liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for PLD, medical therapies are gradually being developed with the increasing knowledge of the disease’s pathophysiology. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of PLD, as well as treatment strategies, to support clinicians regarding the clinical management of the disease.

Citations

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  • Predicting Safe Liver Resection Volume for Major Hepatectomy Using Artificial Intelligence
    Chol Min Kang, Hyung June Ku, Hyung Hwan Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Jo, Young Il Choi, Dong Hoon Shin
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 381.     CrossRef
Case reports
Heterotopic ovarian hilus cells of the salpinx: a case report and literature review
Bomi Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):66-70.   Published online September 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.120
  • 1,530 View
  • 18 Download
Abstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Ovarian hilus cells (OHCs), a counterpart of testicular Leydig cells, are usually found in the ovarian poles and produce androstenedione. Their origin remains a matter of debate, although OHCs are assumed to come from the adrenogenital primordium. OHCs are rarely observed around the poles of the ovary, including the mesoovarium, stroma (perisalpinx) of the salpinx, and the wall of paratubal cysts. Their clinical and pathological characteristics are not well-known because of their rarity. Herein, we present a case of ectopic OHCs in a 48-year-old woman. The patient underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for vaginal bleeding due to multiple leiomyomas. We incidentally found OHCs in the stroma of the infundibulum of the salpinx, just beneath the tubal epithelium. Their size was less than 1 mm, and they were composed of large cells with central round nuclei and abundant clear or granular cytoplasm. OHCs share morphological and immunohistochemical profiles with ectopic adrenal glands, and the differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. They do not exhibit microscopic encapsulation or the normal adrenal cortex zonation pattern. The patient was discharged and did not show any abnormal findings during 19 months of follow-up. Analyzing the characteristics of testicular Leydig cells will help understand how OHCs develop and why heterotopic OHCs occur in and around the salpinges.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with a pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a case report
Nam Kyung Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):71-74.   Published online August 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.123
  • 1,432 View
  • 12 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is very rare. No reports have described SCC accompanied by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. This report presents the first known case of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas in a 71-year-old man, with a focus on radiologic findings. Here, the imaging features of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas were similar to those of IPMN of the pancreas with high-risk stigmata features.
Review article
Gastric cancer and metabolic syndrome
Hyeong Ho Jo
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):26-34.   Published online March 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.108
  • 1,177 View
  • 14 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gastric cancer (GC), a prevalent disease in Asian countries, presents a substantial global health challenge. The risk factors for GC include Helicobacter pylori infection, diet, smoking, alcohol, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review meticulously examines the intricate connections between MetS and GC, focusing on visceral adipocytes, hormonal factors, obesity, and their impact on survival outcomes. Visceral adipocytes, which secrete inflammatory cytokines and hormones, play a pivotal role in influencing cancer development. Hormonal factors demonstrate nuanced associations with specific GC subtypes, underscoring the complexity of their impact. Large-scale studies exploring obesity-related factors reveal sex-specific nuances and underscore the importance of considering overall weight and body composition. Furthermore, the review explores the impact of eradication therapy for H. pylori infection, which is the most significant factor in the onset of GC, on the components of MetS. Additionally, the influence of MetS on postoperative outcomes and survival in GC patients highlights the interplay between therapeutic interventions and lifestyle factors. This comprehensive exploration sheds light on the multifaceted relationship between MetS and GC, providing valuable insights for future research and preventive strategies.
Original article
Clinical efficacy and safety of autologous serum intramuscular injection in patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study
Gil-Soon Choi, Jong Bin Park, Young-Ho Kim, Hee-Kyoo Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):51-59.   Published online March 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.101
  • 1,180 View
  • 6 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Autologous blood therapy (ABT) has been used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) for over a century, even though evidence supporting its efficacy is lacking. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of autologous serum intramuscular injection (ASIM), which is a modified form of ABT, in treating mild-to-moderate AD.
Methods
This study was a 12-week, open-label, prospective, uncontrolled trial. Following a 4-week run-in period, 22 out of 25 screened patients received ASIM once a week for 4 weeks in conjunction with standard treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), while the secondary outcomes included the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI), and patient ratings of pruritus, sleep difficulty, disease status, and treatment effectiveness. Safety parameters were also assessed.
Results
EASI scores showed a non-statistically significant trend toward improvement during ASIM intervention. Patients with at least a 50% improvement in the EASI score at 4 weeks were older and had lower peripheral eosinophil counts (p<0.05). Secondary endpoints, including the SCORAD score, pruritus, sleep difficulty, and DLQI, demonstrated statistically significant improvements at week 4 compared to baseline (p<0.05). No significant adverse reactions were observed.
Conclusions
This pioneering study suggests that repeated ASIM may improve the clinical symptoms of mild-to-moderate AD, particularly in terms of pruritus and overall quality of life. However, further research with a larger sample size is required to establish the clinical significance of these findings.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What are the clinical usefulness and scientific value of intramuscular injection of autologous serum (autologous serum therapy) in patients with atopic dermatitis?
    Dong-Ho Nahm
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(1): 1.     CrossRef
Review article
Clinical challenges and advancements in diagnosing Staphylococcus aureus-associated musculoskeletal infections
Irvin Oh
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):5-17.   Published online March 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.104
  • 1,142 View
  • 12 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Musculoskeletal infections (MSKI) present a significant health challenge, with a rising incidence linked to the aging population and advancements in orthopedic surgical care. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen associated with orthopedic infections. The conventional culture method for identification of pathogen frequently lacks accuracy and is challenged by false-positive or false-negative results. Inflammatory markers such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not site-specific or accurate, as they can be confounded by other medical conditions. Identifying the dominant pathogen and monitoring treatment response following surgical debridement and antibiotics therapy continues to pose challenges. Understanding the pathogenesis of MSKI is crucial for the development of innovative diagnostics and alternative therapeutics. S. aureus immune evasion stands out as a key component of the pathogenic mechanism, complicating clinical decisions. Other unique mechanisms such as biofilm and abscess formation, as well as osteocyte-lacuno canalicular network invasion, underscore the need for aggressive debridement and the complete removal of infected implants and bone tissues. Ongoing efforts focus on exploring and developing innovative diagnostics, such as serum immunoassays, next-generation sequencing of infected tissue, transcriptomics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and serum proteomics. These endeavors offer promising avenues for improved diagnostics, medical management, and innovative therapeutics for MSKI.
Case report
Surgical management of giant adrenal myelolipoma using a modified Makuuchi incision: a case report
Byeong Jin Kang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Kyoungha Jang, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hong Koo Ha
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):75-79.   Published online December 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.132
  • 1,254 View
  • 14 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Giant adrenal myelolipomas are rare, benign, and hormonally inactive tumors. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with a 19-cm retroperitoneal mass, initially suspected to be a retroperitoneal liposarcoma, angiomyolipoma, or adrenal myelolipoma. After conducting endocrine assessments, which were within normal ranges, we decided to perform surgical excision using a modified Makuuchi incision. The tumor was successfully removed, and the final pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma. The patient was discharged with no complications and remained without disease recurrence or distant metastasis as of 1 year postoperatively. In conclusion, giant myelolipomas are rare and cause symptoms owing to their large size. Surgical removal is recommended for large or symptomatic myelolipomas. The modified Makuuchi incision allows efficient and safe tumor removal in open surgery for giant myelolipomas.
Review articles
How to write an original article in medicine and medical science
Gwansuk Kang, Sung Eun Kim
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(2):96-101.   Published online June 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.105
  • 3,301 View
  • 74 Download
  • 7 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Excellent research in the fields of medicine and medical science can advance the field and contribute to human health improvement. In this aspect, research is important. However, if researchers do not publish their research, their efforts cannot benefit anyone. To make a difference, researchers must disseminate their results and communicate their opinions. One way to do this is by publishing their research. Therefore, academic writing is an essential skill for researchers. However, preparing a manuscript is not an easy task, and it is difficult to write well. Following a structure may be helpful for researchers. For example, the standard structure of medical and medical science articles includes the following sections: introduction, methods, results, and discussion (IMRAD). The purpose of this review is to present an introduction for researchers, especially novices, on how to write an original article in the field of medicine and medical science. Therefore, we discuss how to prepare and write a research manuscript for publication, using the IMRAD structure. We also included specific tips for writing manuscripts in medicine and medical science.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predicting Safe Liver Resection Volume for Major Hepatectomy Using Artificial Intelligence
    Chol Min Kang, Hyung June Ku, Hyung Hwan Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Jo, Young Il Choi, Dong Hoon Shin
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 381.     CrossRef
  • Changes in parents’ health concerns by post-preterm birth period in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Yu Jin Jung, Hun Ha Cho
    Child Health Nursing Research.2024; 30(2): 118.     CrossRef
  • Troponin I and D-dimer levels as triaging biomarkers to distinguish acute pulmonary thromboembolism from myocardial infarction
    Soo-Jin Kim, Moo Hyun Kim, Kwang Min Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Young Shin Cha, Da Eun Koh, Joo Yeong Hwang, Jong Sung Park
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 252.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of myopia progression using orthokeratology
    Stephanie Suzanne S. Garcia, Changzoo Kim
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 231.     CrossRef
  • Basic knowledge of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
    Jung Wook Lee
    Kosin Medical Journal.2023; 38(4): 241.     CrossRef
  • How does quiz activity affect summative assessment outcomes? An analysis of three consecutive years’ data on self-directed learning
    Chi Eun Oh, Hyunyong Hwang
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(3): 228.     CrossRef
  • The effects of rebamipide, sucralfate, and rifaximin against inflammation and apoptosis in radiation-induced murine intestinal injury
    Won Moon, Sangwook Lim, Yeonsoon Jung, Yuk Moon Heo, Seun Ja Park, Moo In Park, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Kyoungwon Jung
    Kosin Medical Journal.2022; 37(4): 320.     CrossRef
Exploring the nexus between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and colorectal cancer
Jong Yoon Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):18-25.   Published online March 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.107
  • 1,055 View
  • 18 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The increasing global prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Obesity and MetS detrimentally impact the treatment outcomes of CRC and share similar mechanisms that contribute to the development of CRC. Increased insulin resistance in patients with obesity is linked to CRC, and altered levels of sex hormones and adipokines affect cell growth and inflammation. Obesity and MetS also alter the gut microbiome. Bile acids, which are crucial for lipid metabolism, are elevated in patients with obesity. Moreover, specific bile acids are associated with colonic damage, inflammation, and the development of CRC. Obesity and MetS increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect the response to chemotherapy. The promotion of weight loss and the resolution of MetS can reduce the occurrence of CRC and increase treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is imperative to implement appropriate management strategies to address obesity and MetS with the aim of improving the prognosis and reducing the incidence of CRC. Moreover, additional research should be conducted to determine the optimal timing for tailored CRC screening in patients with obesity or MetS. In this review, we explore the impact of obesity and MetS on the development of CRC and examine potential strategies to mitigate CRC risk in individuals with obesity and MetS.
Role of biomarkers in the heart failure clinic
Bong-Joon Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(1):4-17.   Published online March 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.019
  • 3,802 View
  • 74 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiovascular disease that has a complex pathophysiology. Because it is the final stage of many cardiovascular diseases, proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for prolonging patients’ survival and improving their well-being. Several biomarkers have been identified in HF, and their roles in diagnosis and prognostication have been widely investigated. Among them, natriuretic peptides are key for diagnosing HF, predicting its prognosis, and monitoring the effectiveness of HF treatment. Moreover, natriuretic peptides can also be used to treat HF. In addition to natriuretic peptides, several other biomarkers were included in the most recent HF management guidelines. Thus, we reviewed the role of the biomarkers included in these guidelines and discussed future perspectives.
Case report
Primary gastric leiomyosarcoma: a case report and literature review
Yedaun Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(1):60-65.   Published online August 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.118
  • 1,277 View
  • 15 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
After separating gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors from true smooth muscle tumors of the GI tract, leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the GI tract has become a rare tumor. Gastric LMS is extremely rare and accounts for 0.1% of all cases of LMS in the GI tract. There are few English-language reports of gastric LMS describing radiologic findings. Here, we report a case of gastric LMS and review the recent literature focusing on radiologic findings. An 80-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation of a gastric mass accompanied by severe anemia. The physical examination revealed no specific findings except for an anemic conjunctiva. Laboratory data showed a low hemoglobin level of 5.1 g/dL. Endoscopy revealed a huge subepithelial mass in the posterior wall of the gastric body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images showed an intraluminal protruding enhancing mass with an internal stalk appearance in the gastric body. There was no internal necrosis or calcification. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy and was diagnosed with primary gastric LMS. The diagnosis of gastric LMS is challenging due to its rarity. Our case report suggests that the presence of an internal stalk or spouting appearance can help prompt the radiologist to consider gastric LMS in the differential diagnosis.
Editorial

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal