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Volume 36(1); June 2021
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Original articles
Antinociceptive Effect of BPC-157 in the Formalin-induced Pain Model
Sang Yoong Park, So Ron Choi, Jeong Ho Kim, Seung Cheol Lee, Seong Yeop Jeong, Joon Ho Jeong, Tae Young Lee
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):1-13.   Published online June 30, 2021
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  • 3 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Body protective compound-157 (BPC-157) is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide that has been effective in trials aiming to increase wound healing capabilities and decrease inflammatory cell influx, including studies on the healing of muscles and tendons. There are no studies about the effect of BPC-157 on pain transmission via nociception. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of BPC-157 using formalin tests and immunohistochemistry.


Rats were randomly divided into the control, morphine and BPC-157 groups. Pain behavior was quantified periodically at 5- and 35- min intervals (representative values of phases 1 and 2) by counting the number of flinches exhibited by the injected paw after injection. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords (SC) were collected, and then, the number of cytokine-positive cells was determined via immunostaining.


BPC-157 dose-dependently decreased the number of flinches during phase 1 but did not decrease the number of flinches during phase 2. During phase 1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the DRG tissue was significantly different in the morphine, 10 μg/kg BPC-157, and 20 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the DRG tissue in the morphine, 20 μg/kg BPC-157, and 40 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 1, interleukin-6 was significantly different in the DRG tissue in the morphine group and the SC tissue in the 10 μg/kg BPC-157 group. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the morphine group and the BPC-157 20 μg/kg group in both the DRG and SC tissues. There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-α between the DRG and SC tissues.


BPC-157 was effective during phase 1 but not during phase 2, as determined by the formalin test. BPC-157 decreased the expression of IL-1β in the DRG tissue in phases 1 and 2.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The anti-nociceptive effect of BPC-157 on the incisional pain model in rats
    Young-Hoon Jung, Haekyu Kim, Hyaejin Kim, Eunsoo Kim, Jiseok Baik, Hyunjong Kang
    Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.2022; 22(2): 97.     CrossRef
  • Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as Useful Cytoprotective Peptide Therapy in the Heart Disturbances, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, Pulmonary Hypertension, Arrhythmias, and Thrombosis Presentation
    Predrag Sikiric, Mario Udovicic, Ivan Barisic, Diana Balenovic, Gordana Zivanovic Posilovic, Dean Strinic, Sandra Uzun, Suncana Sikiric, Ivan Krezic, Helena Zizek, Haidi Yago, Slaven Gojkovic, Ivan Maria Smoday, Luka Kalogjera, Hrvoje Vranes, Marija Sola,
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(11): 2696.     CrossRef
  • Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and Striated, Smooth, and Heart Muscle
    Mario Staresinic, Mladen Japjec, Hrvoje Vranes, Andreja Prtoric, Helena Zizek, Ivan Krezic, Slaven Gojkovic, Ivan Maria Smoday, Katarina Oroz, Eva Staresinic, Vilim Dretar, Haidi Yago, Marija Milavic, Suncana Sikiric, Eva Lovric, Lovorka Batelja Vuletic,
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(12): 3221.     CrossRef
The Effect of Patient-controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) on Postoperative Delirium in Patients with Liver Transplantation: a Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Hyo Jung Son, Ukjin Jeong, Kunwoong Choi, Ju Yeon Park, Eun-Ji Choi, Hyun-Su Ri, Tae Beom Lee, Byung Hyun Choi, Yoon Ji Choi
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):14-24.   Published online June 30, 2021
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Postoperative opioid use and pain are related to postoperative delirium. This study aims to compare the incidence of delirium in patients with and without patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) among liver transplant recipients.


The medical records of 253 patients who received liver transplantation (LT) from January 2010 to July 2017 in a single university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: the patients who had used PCIA (P group, n = 71) and those who did not use PCIA (C group, n = 182) after LT in intensive care unit (ICU). The patient data were collected, which included demographic data, and details about perioperative management and postoperative complications.


There was no difference in the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score between the two groups. Postoperative delirium occurred in 10 / 71 (14.08 %) in the P group and 26 / 182 (14.29 %) in the C group after LT, respectively (P = 0.97). After propensity score matching, no differences were observed in the incidence of delirium (P = 0.359) and the time from surgery to discharge (P = 0.26) between the two groups.


Patients with PCIA after LT exhibited no relationship with postoperative delirium. Therefore, it is necessary to actively control postoperative pain using PCIA.

Immediate Changes of Glucose Metabolism After Gastretomy for Early Gastric Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Ki Hyun Kim, Yoon Hong Kim, Kyung Won Seo, Ki Young Yoon, Yeon Myeong Shin, Young Sik Choi, Bu Kyung Kim
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):25-33.   Published online June 30, 2021
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  • 8 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

It is well known that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is dramatically improved after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms have not been clearly identified. The skill required for gastric surgery for gastric cancer is very similar to that needed in bariatric surgery. In this study, we evaluated the immediate improvement of T2DM after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.


A total of nine patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer (EGC) and already had T2DM underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before surgery and within two weeks after gastrectomy. Glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured before, and 30 and 60 minutes after ingesting 75 g of glucose. From these trials, we calculated the HOMA-IR, insulinogenic index, Matsuda index, and area under the curve (AUC).


The mean age of participants was 57.23 ± 11.08 years and eight of them were men. HOMA-IR (4.2 vs. 2.3, P = 0.012) levels were decreased after surgery. There were no significant differences of insulinogenic index, fasting blood sugar before and after surgery. The Matsuda index (3.3 vs. 8.3, P = 0.002) was significantly increased and AUC (512.9 vs. 388.7 mg-hr/dL, P > 0.001) upon 75 g OGTT was significantly decreased after surgery.


Insulin sensitivity was immediately improved after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer in patients with T2DM.

Case Reports
The Management of Foreign Body Sensation in the Throat after Stroke by Trigger Point Injection on Posterior Belly of Digastric Muscles
Howard Kim, Hoe Saeng Yang, Ji Hwan Cheon, Ki Hong Won
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):34-39.   Published online June 30, 2021
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  • 6 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Foreign body (FB) sensation in the throat is often a common symptom encountered in clinical practice. FB sensation in throat has numerous causes mainly caused by reflex diseases such as laryngopharyngeal reflux. Its treatment has been focused on organic problems or hysteria while musculoskeletal problem has been neglected. We hereby report a patient with dysphagia and complaint of FB sensation in the throat after nasogastric tube removal. It was relieved by trigger point injection on the posterior belly of digastric muscles.

Case reports
Right Atrial Blood Cyst Mimicking a Vegetative Mass
Sun Hack Lee, Jung Hyun Choi
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):40-43.   Published online June 30, 2021
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

A 79-year-old woman presented to another hospital with complaints of right leg pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was performed in the other hospital, which showed an abscess in the right iliacus muscle. She was referred to our hospital because of a mass in the right atrium on echocardiography. Inflammatory markers were elevated, and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in blood cultures. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a shaggy mass in the right atrium that resembled vegetation. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a large cystic mass with a hyperechoic lesion. After surgery, biopsy results indicated that it was a myxoid mass with cystic changes.

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Malfunction in Infant Hydrocephalus
Sangjun Ahn, Jae Meen Lee, Young Mi Kim, Hyeshin Jeon, Chang Hwa Choi
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):44-50.   Published online June 30, 2021
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  • 7 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome defined by elevated intracranial pressure without any abnormal findings. In the present study, we report a rare case of IIH in a patient after ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) due to infant hydrocephalus. A 13-year-old girl with a history of VPS due to infant hydrocephalus was admitted to emergency room with the complaint of severe headache and visual disturbance. Brain computed tomography showed normal findings. However, based on the measurement by lumbar puncture, her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure was observed to be very high. The shunt function test revealed a VPS malfunction. Thus, we conducted VPS revision in this patient. All symptoms improved immediately after the revision. Thus, it is proposed that IIH should be considered for patients with visual disturbance and severe headache after VPS due to infant hydrocephalus without ventriculomegaly.

Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Contrast-induced Encephalopathy following Cerebral Angiography
Won Ho Cho, Jung Hwan Lee, Tae Hong Lee, Chang Hwa Choi, Jun Kyeung Ko
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(1):51-55.   Published online June 30, 2021
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  • 10 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) following cerebral angiography has similar clinical presentations to ischemic complications of cerebral angiography. Neurologic deficits in CIE are mostly transient, but those caused by acute cerebral infarction (ACI) as ischemic complications of cerebral angiography may be permanent. Therefore, distinguishing CIE from ACI is important. Diffusion restriction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) implies ACI, while hyperintensity on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) without correlation on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map implies CIE. We reported a rare case of CIE with diffusion restriction on MRI following cerebral angiography that mimicked MRI findings of ACI. The mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown and requires further investigation.

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal