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Review article
The Roles of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) in Inflammation
Eun-Ji Ko, Hee-Jae Cha
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(2):69-78.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2021.36.2.69
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  • 4 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient, currently inactive, and non-infectious due to recombination, deletions, and mutations in the host genome. However, HERV-derived elements are involved in physiological phenomena including inflammatory response. In recent studies, HERV-derived elements were involved directly in various inflammatory diseases including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Sjogren’s syndrome. Regarding the involvement of HERV-derived elements in inflammation, two possible mechanisms have been proposed. First, HERV-derived elements cause nonspecific innate immune processes. Second, HERV-derived RNA or proteins might stimulate selective signaling mechanisms. However, it is unknown how silent HERV elements are activated in the inflammatory response and what factors and signaling mechanisms are involved with HERV-derived elements. In this review, we introduce HERV-related autoimmune diseases and propose the possible action mechanisms of HERV-derived elements in the inflammatory response at the molecular level.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Correlation analysis of cancer stem cell marker CD133 and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-K env in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells
    Do-Ye Kim, Heungyeol Kim, Eun-Ji Ko, Suk Bong Koh, Hongbae Kim, Ji Young Lee, Chul Min Lee, Wan Kyu Eo, Ki Hyung Kim, Hee-Jae Cha
    Genes & Genomics.2024; 46(4): 511.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV)-K119 env in THP-1 Monocytic Cell Differentiation
    Eun-Ji Ko, Min-Hye Kim, Do-Ye Kim, Hyojin An, Sun-Hee Leem, Yung Hyun Choi, Heui-Soo Kim, Hee-Jae Cha
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(21): 15566.     CrossRef
  • Effect of human endogenous retrovirus-K env gene knockout on proliferation of ovarian cancer cells
    Eun-Ji Ko, Eun Taeg Kim, Heungyeol Kim, Chul Min Lee, Suk Bong Koh, Wan Kyu Eo, Hongbae Kim, Young Lim Oh, Mee Sun Ock, Ki Hyung Kim, Hee-Jae Cha
    Genes & Genomics.2022; 44(9): 1091.     CrossRef
  • A Systems Biology Approach on the Regulatory Footprint of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs)
    Georgios S. Markopoulos
    Diseases.2022; 10(4): 98.     CrossRef

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal