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27 "Case reports"
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Case reports
Disseminated herpes zoster with vagus nerve involvement in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report
Dong Eon Kim, Da Woon Kim, Hyo Jin Kim, Harin Rhee, Sang Heon Song, Eun Young Seong
Received November 20, 2023  Accepted January 7, 2024  Published online February 19, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.154    [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Herpes zoster virus infection is common and results in significant morbidity in patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation. Herpes zoster can involve the cranial nerves, and vagus nerve involvement is an infrequent primary manifestation of herpes zoster. Here, we describe a rare presentation of disseminated herpes zoster infection with vagus nerve involvement in a kidney transplant recipient. A 62-year-old man who had undergone kidney transplantation 3 years prior presented to our clinic with sore throat and hoarseness, followed by multiple vesicular-pustular rashes on the face and trunk. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed left paramedian vocal cord paralysis with multiple ulcerative lesions extending from the left pyriform sinus to the epiglottis. Computed tomography of the neck, abdomen, and chest revealed no significant abnormalities that could have caused vocal cord paralysis. We confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated herpes zoster after herpes zoster laryngitis based on positive blood tests and polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus antibodies. The skin rashes and laryngeal ulcers rapidly resolved after treatment with intravenous acyclovir and high-dose steroids. The patient still had persistent dysphagia and microaspiration as assessed by a video fluoroscopic swallowing study, but showed improvement in dysphagia in response to swallowing rehabilitation therapy. This case provides valuable insights into the presenting symptoms of disseminated herpes zoster, which can cause acute vagus neuritis in solid organ transplantation recipients.
Selective adjuvant radiation therapy for distant lymph node metastasis in patients with stage 4B epithelial ovarian cancer: a case series
Eun Taeg Kim, Seung Yeon Oh, Sun Young Ma, Tae Hwa Lee, Won Gyu Kim
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(4):293-299.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.146
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Although the efficacy of surgery followed by taxane- and platinum-based systemic chemotherapy has been clearly demonstrated in the standard first-line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, the role of radiation therapy for distant lymph node metastasis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer is not well-established due to a lack of reported studies. We identified four patients who underwent selective adjuvant radiation therapy for neck and para-aortic lymph node lesions after primary debulking surgery between 2020 and 2022, followed by platinum-based chemotherapy for stage 4B high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Through a retrospective review of medical records, we analyzed patient clinicopathologic features, treatment course, and imaging findings. The median age was 49.25 years (range, 46–54 years). All patients had the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage 4B disease. Following primary debulking surgery, all patients received weekly paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy and maintenance treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. All patients received selective adjuvant radiation therapy for neck and para-aortic lymph node metastasis before PARP inhibitor maintenance. The median follow-up time was 36.75 months (range, 19–45 months). All patients achieved a complete response. None of the patients experienced disease recurrence or died during the follow-up period. The management of distant lymph node metastasis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer remains a matter of debate. Selective adjuvant radiation therapy in first-line treatment for ovarian cancer appears to be a feasible approach with maintenance therapy for stage 4B epithelial ovarian cancer.
Surgical management of giant adrenal myelolipoma using a modified Makuuchi incision: a case report
Byeong Jin Kang, Seung Hyeon Kim, Kyoungha Jang, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hong Koo Ha
Received June 22, 2023  Accepted October 20, 2023  Published online December 14, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.132    [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Giant adrenal myelolipomas are rare, benign, and hormonally inactive tumors. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with a 19-cm retroperitoneal mass, initially suspected to be a retroperitoneal liposarcoma, angiomyolipoma, or adrenal myelolipoma. After conducting endocrine assessments, which were within normal ranges, we decided to perform surgical excision using a modified Makuuchi incision. The tumor was successfully removed, and the final pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma. The patient was discharged with no complications and remained without disease recurrence or distant metastasis as of 1 year postoperatively. In conclusion, giant myelolipomas are rare and cause symptoms owing to their large size. Surgical removal is recommended for large or symptomatic myelolipomas. The modified Makuuchi incision allows efficient and safe tumor removal in open surgery for giant myelolipomas.
Perioperative cutaneous complications in an elderly patient due to inappropriate use of a forced-air warming device and underbody blanket: a case report
Myounghun Kim, Soo Jee Lee, Beomseok Choi, Geunho Lee, Seunghee Ki
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(4):288-292.   Published online December 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.136
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Forced-air warming is commonly utilized to prevent perioperative hypothermia. Underbody warming blankets are often employed to secure a larger area for patient warming. While forced-air warming systems are generally regarded as safe, improper usage poses a risk of cutaneous complications. Additionally, the influence of underbody blankets on cutaneous complications remains uncertain. We present a case of cutaneous complications resulting from the improper utilization of a forced-air warming device and an underbody blanket. A 79-year-old man presented to the hospital for robotic proctectomy under general anesthesia. The surgery lasted for 7 hours, and the forced-air warming device with underbody blanket operated continuously for 5 hours intraoperatively. The surgery was completed without any incidents. However, first-degree burns on the patient’s back, along with superficial decubitus ulcers on his right scapula, were observed after surgery. To prevent cutaneous complications, clinicians must adhere to the manufacturer's guidelines when utilizing a forced-air warming system. Compared to overbody blankets, underbody blankets have limitations in monitoring cutaneous responses. Ensuring patient safety requires selecting an appropriate blanket for scheduled operations.
Heterotopic ovarian hilus cells of the salpinx: a case report and review of the literature
Bomi Kim
Received April 20, 2023  Accepted August 6, 2023  Published online September 12, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.120    [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Ovarian hilus cells (OHCs), a counterpart of testicular Leydig cells, are usually found in the ovarian poles and produce androstenedione. Their origin remains a matter of debate, although OHCs are assumed to come from the adrenogenital primordium. OHCs are rarely observed around the poles of the ovary, including the mesoovarium, stroma (perisalpinx) of the salpinx, and the wall of paratubal cysts. Their clinical and pathological characteristics are not well-known because of their rarity. Herein, we present a case of ectopic OHCs in a 48-year-old woman. The patient underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for vaginal bleeding due to multiple leiomyomas. We incidentally found OHCs in the stroma of the infundibulum of the salpinx, just beneath the tubal epithelium. Their size was less than 1 mm, and they were composed of large cells with central round nuclei and abundant clear or granular cytoplasm. OHCs share morphological and immunohistochemical profiles with ectopic adrenal glands, and the differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. They do not exhibit microscopic encapsulation or the normal adrenal cortex zonation pattern. The patient was discharged and did not show any abnormal findings during 19 months of follow-up. Analyzing the characteristics of testicular Leydig cells will help understand how OHCs develop and why heterotopic OHCs occur in and around the salpinges.
Primary gastric leiomyosarcoma: a case report and literature review
Yedaun Lee
Received April 10, 2023  Accepted July 5, 2023  Published online August 18, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.118    [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
After separating gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors from true smooth muscle tumors of the GI tract, leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the GI tract has become a rare tumor. Gastric LMS is extremely rare and accounts for 0.1% of all cases of LMS in the GI tract. There are few English-language reports of gastric LMS describing radiologic findings. Here, we report a case of gastric LMS and review the recent literature focusing on radiologic findings. An 80-year-old female patient was referred for evaluation of a gastric mass accompanied by severe anemia. The physical examination revealed no specific findings except for an anemic conjunctiva. Laboratory data showed a low hemoglobin level of 5.1 g/dL. Endoscopy revealed a huge subepithelial mass in the posterior wall of the gastric body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images showed an intraluminal protruding enhancing mass with an internal stalk appearance in the gastric body. There was no internal necrosis or calcification. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy and was diagnosed with primary gastric LMS. The diagnosis of gastric LMS is challenging due to its rarity. Our case report suggests that the presence of an internal stalk or spouting appearance can help prompt the radiologist to consider gastric LMS in the differential diagnosis.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with a pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: a case report
Nam Kyung Lee
Received April 27, 2023  Accepted July 5, 2023  Published online August 17, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.123    [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is very rare. No reports have described SCC accompanied by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. This report presents the first known case of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas in a 71-year-old man, with a focus on radiologic findings. Here, the imaging features of SCC with IPMN of the pancreas were similar to those of IPMN of the pancreas with high-risk stigmata features.
Scrub typhus infection in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report
Dongyeon Lee, Joohee Jeon, Jae Sung Ahn, Chung Hee Baek
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):224-228.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.114
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Scrub typhus is a febrile disease that is endemic to Asia and the Pacific region. Its clinical manifestations include fever, myalgia, lymphadenopathy, and a characteristic eschar. The main manifestations of this disease are difficult to differentiate from those of other febrile illnesses; thus, a careful clinical examination and a high index of suspicion are crucial for an early diagnosis. Our case involved a 55-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever and sore throat in November. Her clinical symptoms did not improve after oral amoxicillin/clavulanate administration for 7 days, after which proteinuria and acute kidney injury were identified. After hospitalization, an eschar was found and immunoglobulin M antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. She received oral doxycycline for 7 days and showed improvement in renal function and proteinuria. This is the first case report of scrub typhus infection in a kidney transplant patient in Korea. It is meaningful to report that the renal abnormalities associated with scrub typhus improved in a renal transplant patient through treatment of the disease. This case highlights the importance of examining the social history and symptoms of patients suspected of having scrub typhus in endemic areas. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in kidney transplant patients to preserve graft function and prevent fatal complications.
Scrub typhus with complications of acute myocarditis and cardiac tamponade in metropolitan areas: two case reports
Ki-Woon Kang, Wonho Kim
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):210-214.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.111
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Scrub typhus is known as one of the most common seasonal infections in endemic rural areas, but life-threatening cardiac complications in cases of scrub typhus are very infrequent. In addition, scrub typhus infection has been rarely reported among workers assembling pallets using manufactured wood in metropolitan areas. Herein, we present two cases involving myocarditis and cardiac tamponade as complications of scrub typhus. One patient died and the other patient survived. These cases indicate that scrub typhus infection could be an environmental hazard in metropolitan areas, especially in locations with poor hygiene, and highlight the need for timely diagnosis and proper management of severe scrub typhus infections. Therefore, we present these two informative fatal cases of scrub typhus infection presenting with myocarditis and cardiac tamponade as an environmental hazard in metropolitan areas.
Central diabetes insipidus following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination: a case report
Min-Young Kim, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Jaehoon Jung, Jung Hwa Jung, Kyoung Young Kim, Hosu Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Hwa Seon Shin, Kee Ryeon Kang, Soo Kyoung Kim
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):219-223.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.105
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a major public health emergency worldwide. Vaccines were rapidly developed and approved to prevent the spread of viral infection. However, various side effects of the COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have been reported after their commercialization. A 24-year-old man visited our emergency department with polyuria and polydipsia that occurred after he received a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine 10 days beforehand. The initial laboratory findings showed very low urine osmolality with hyperosmolar hypernatremia. Based on these findings, diabetes insipidus was suspected, and sella magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged pituitary gland and the absence of posterior pituitary higher intensity. After 12 hours of using oral desmopressin acetate, urine volume decreased, and after 5 days of administration, serum electrolyte and serum osmolality improved. This case report of diabetes insipidus occurring after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine is presented as a reminder that close monitoring is necessary for patients with polyuria and polydipsia after vaccination.
A case report of successfully treated metachronous gastrointestinal stromal tumor and colon cancer
Young Jin Heo, Ji Young Lee
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(1):60-65.   Published online March 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.138
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has become relatively common in recent years, but little is known about its association with other malignancies. We present a rare case of successfully treated metachronous GIST and colon cancer with concurrent FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and imatinib. A 63-year-old man presented with abdominal pain that had started 2 weeks ago, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed masses that were compatible with GIST on the duodenum. He underwent Whipple surgery. One year after the GIST diagnosis, two liver masses were found on abdominal computed tomography images taken for surveillance. A liver biopsy showed metastatic adenocarcinoma, not GIST. Colonoscopy was then performed to identify the primary site of the metastatic adenocarcinoma in the liver, and sigmoid colon cancer was found. He received 12 cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX concurrently with adjuvant imatinib. There were no serious adverse events of grade 3 or higher from either imatinib or chemotherapy. He has completed adjuvant imatinib and FOLFOX chemotherapy and there is no evidence of disease recurrence. When a synchronous or metachronous tumor is found in a GIST patient, the clinician should keep in mind the possibility of another primary tumor of different histopathology, as well as GIST recurrence.
Bochdalek hernia presenting gastrointestinal symptoms in late childhood: a case report
Sang Seok Jeong
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(1):56-59.   Published online February 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.134
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Most cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be diagnosed based on symptoms of severe respiratory failure during the neonatal period or fetal ultrasonography. However, some rare cases are diagnosed in late childhood or adolescence. In this case report, I describe an 11-year-old male patient diagnosed with late-onset CDH presenting with acute abdominal pain. The patient had recently experienced anorexia, nausea, and vomiting after eating. However, he reported no abdominal pain or past history of trauma. The abdomen was generally convex. All laboratory data were within normal limits. A chest X-ray revealed elevation of the left diaphragm. Chest computed tomography showed a defect in the left diaphragm. Based on the above radiologic findings, emergency surgery was performed after the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia. A surgical incision was performed in the left subcostal area. Finally, late-presenting Bochdalek hernia was diagnosed. The operation was completed and no specific findings on chest X-ray were found after surgery. The patient was discharged on the fourth day after surgery. In conclusion, CDH in late childhood or adolescence is rare and has various clinical manifestations. To avoid complications such as strangulation and bowel perforation, emergency surgery may be required. Thus, it is necessary to suspect CDH in children with recurrent gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms, based on which an accurate diagnosis can be made and successful surgical treatment can be performed.
Dermoscopic features of an unusual case of targetoid hemosiderotic nevus
Sun Mun Jeong, Jang Hwan Jung, Do Ik Kwon, Seol Hwa Seong, Ji Yun Jang, Jong Bin Park, Min Soo Jang
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(3):215-218.   Published online February 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.119
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Targetoid hemosiderotic nevus (THN) is a rare variant of melanocytic nevus, characterized by a sudden development of a targetoid ecchymotic halo around a pre-existing nevus. THN clinically raises concern for malignant transformation due to its abrupt change in color and size. THN should be distinguished from other diseases showing a peripheral halo, including targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma, halo nevus, and Meyerson nevus. Dermoscopy can help clinicians to differentiate THN from these diseases. The typical dermoscopic features of THN are known to be divided into two distinctive areas: the central melanocytic area and the peripheral ecchymotic area. In our case, dermoscopy revealed a novel bull’s eye pattern composed of a central area with characteristic features of benign melanocytic nevus, an intermediated white circular ring, and a peripheral milky red area. When a sudden change occurs in a pre-existing nodule showing targetoid features, dermoscopy should be considered before conducting a biopsy or surgical intervention.
Traumatic neuroma of the right posterior hepatic duct with an anatomic variation masquerading as malignancy: a case report
Jae Ryong Shim, Tae Beom Lee, Byung Hyun Choi, Je Ho Ryu, Jung Hee Lee, Kwangho Yang
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(1):66-71.   Published online January 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.135
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Traumatic neuroma (TN), also known as amputation neuroma, is a reactive hyperplasia of nerve fibers and connective tissue arising from Schwann cells after trauma or surgery. TN of the bile duct is usually asymptomatic, but rarely can lead to right upper quadrant pain, biliary obstruction, and acute cholangitis. It is very difficult to discriminate TN from malignancy before surgery, although doing so could avoid an unnecessary radical resection of the lesion. In the course of surgery, TN can be caused by unintentional injury of a nerve fiber near the common bile duct (CBD) and heat damage to an artery, complete ligation of an artery, and excessive manipulation of the CBD. Therefore, to prevent TN after cholecystectomy, surgery should be performed carefully with appropriate consideration of anatomic variations, and a cystic duct should not be resected too close to the CBD. The possibility of TN should be considered if a patient who has undergone CBD resection with hepaticojejunostomy or cholecystectomy long ago experiences symptoms of jaundice, cholangitis, or obliteration of the CBD. In this report, we present a case of TN mimicking cholangiocarcinoma that emerged from a cystic duct stump after cholecystectomy.
A case report of a carotid space abscess due to extraluminal migration of a fishbone into the deep cervical space
Tae-Hun Lee, Ki Ju Cho, Seong Jun Won, Jung Je Park
Kosin Med J. 2023;38(2):151-155.   Published online December 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.141
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Laryngopharyngeal foreign bodies are among the cases most frequently encountered by otolaryngologists. Most foreign bodies can be easily removed without any complications. However, surgical removal is required in some cases. Therefore, a delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis could cause fatal complications for patients who need a surgical approach. We report a rare case of extraluminal migration of a foreign body to the deep cervical space. The foreign body (a fishbone) was removed by a surgical approach. With a literature review, we also propose an algorithm for the management of suspicious foreign bodies in the neck.

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal