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Original articles
Identification of the transcriptome profile of Miamiensis avidus after mebendazole treatment
Hyunsu Kim, A-Reum Lee, Kyung-Yoon Jeon, Eun-Ji Ko, Hee-Jae Cha, Mee Sun Ock
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(3):203-212.   Published online May 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.22.003
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  • 24 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
The scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus is a major pathogenic agent that causes significant economic losses in the flounder aquaculture industry. Many different types of drugs are being tested to control this disease, including mebendazole, which is a broad-spectrum antiprotozoal agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mebendazole worked in vitro against M. avidus and to explore its mechanism of action.
Methods
Transcriptome and gene ontology analyses were conducted to investigate the specifically expressed gene profile. We confirmed the cytotoxic effect of mebendazole against M. avidus when it was applied intermittently for a total of three times. We also identified differentially expressed genes using transcriptome analysis.
Results
Most of the upregulated genes were membrane transport-related genes, including Na+/K+-ATPase. Most of the downregulated genes were categorized into three groups: tubulin-related, metabolism-related, and transport-related genes. The expression levels of glucose uptake-related genes decreased due to the inhibition of tubulin polymerization, but this was not statistically significant.
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate that intermittent treatment with mebendazole has a significant cytotoxic effect on M. avidus. Furthermore, mebendazole induces downregulation of the tubulin-alpha chain and metabolism-related genes. It is presumed that this leads to a glucose shortage and the death of M. avidus. Transcriptome analysis will provide useful clues for further studies on mebendazole applications for scutica control.
Transcriptome analysis of the pathogenic ciliate Miamiensis avidus after hydrogen peroxide treatment
Hyunsu Kim, A-Reum Lee, Kyung-Yoon Jeon, Eun-Ji Ko, Hee-Jae Cha, Mee Sun Ock
Kosin Med J. 2022;37(1):52-60.   Published online March 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.21.040
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
The scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for serious damage to various organs of aquaculture fish. In particular, the olive flounder aquaculture industry is suffering massive losses due to M. avidus infection. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most widely used chemicals for scuticociliate treatment. Despite the superior killing effect of H2O2, studies on transcription levels and gene expression changes after H2O2 treatment are limited. We conducted an mRNA transcriptome analysis to compare the expressed gene (DEG) profiles between the ciliate and cyst-like stages of M. avidus after H2O2 treatment.
Methods
We applied differentially expressed gene profiling to identify DEGs during the ciliate and cyst-like stages of M. avidus.
Results
There were 5,967 DEGs among the 9,075 transcripts identified, and 50 of these DEGs were significantly different (p<0.05). Among these, 21 DEGs were upregulated and 29 were downregulated in the cyst-like stage. The most significantly upregulated genes during the change to the cyst-like stage were cytochrome c oxidase genes. Genes related to the calcium channel were also highly upregulated.
Conclusion
The significant upregulation of cytochrome c gene expression and cytosolic calcium ion channel-related gene expression after H2O2 treatment suggests that ciliate mortality occurred through apoptosis. The formation of the cyst-like stage is considered a temporary form during the process of apoptosis. Information on the gene expression profile of M. avidus in response to H2O2 is expected to contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of action of therapeutic agents against this pathogen.
Review article
The Roles of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) in Inflammation
Eun-Ji Ko, Hee-Jae Cha
Kosin Med J. 2021;36(2):69-78.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2021.36.2.69
  • 730 View
  • 14 Download
  • 2 Citations
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient, currently inactive, and non-infectious due to recombination, deletions, and mutations in the host genome. However, HERV-derived elements are involved in physiological phenomena including inflammatory response. In recent studies, HERV-derived elements were involved directly in various inflammatory diseases including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Sjogren’s syndrome. Regarding the involvement of HERV-derived elements in inflammation, two possible mechanisms have been proposed. First, HERV-derived elements cause nonspecific innate immune processes. Second, HERV-derived RNA or proteins might stimulate selective signaling mechanisms. However, it is unknown how silent HERV elements are activated in the inflammatory response and what factors and signaling mechanisms are involved with HERV-derived elements. In this review, we introduce HERV-related autoimmune diseases and propose the possible action mechanisms of HERV-derived elements in the inflammatory response at the molecular level.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of human endogenous retrovirus-K env gene knockout on proliferation of ovarian cancer cells
    Eun-Ji Ko, Eun Taeg Kim, Heungyeol Kim, Chul Min Lee, Suk Bong Koh, Wan Kyu Eo, Hongbae Kim, Young Lim Oh, Mee Sun Ock, Ki Hyung Kim, Hee-Jae Cha
    Genes & Genomics.2022; 44(9): 1091.     CrossRef
  • A Systems Biology Approach on the Regulatory Footprint of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs)
    Georgios S. Markopoulos
    Diseases.2022; 10(4): 98.     CrossRef
Original article
Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Anisakis simplex Larval Protein in a Mouse Model of Crohn’S Disease
Hee-Jae Cha, Mee Sun Ock
Kosin Med J. 2013;28(2):107-113.   Published online January 19, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.2013.28.2.107
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  • 1 Download
Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Objectives

Some helminths have been known to have a treatment effect in inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD); however, live parasite therapy can cause unwanted side effects. To develop a safe therapeutic, we investigated the preventive or therapeutic potential of proteins from the third stage larva of A. simplex in a mouse model. We also analyzed the cytokine profile from splenic and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes to elucidate the underlying immunological mechanism.

Methods

CD was induced in mice with DSS, and the effect of an A. simplex larval protein on CD was assessed. A change in body weight and DAI (disease activity index) were observed in mice. The expression levels of cytokines from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) compared to splenic lymphocytes were measured with ELISA.

Results

Peritoneal administration of preventive and therapeutic A. simplex larval proteins attenuated DSS-induced CD by a reduction of the DAI and weight loss. A shortening of colon length was more definitely observed in the therapeutic group than in the preventive group. The cytokine expression levels were more obvious in lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes than from splenic lymphocytes.

Conclusions

Taken together, these results suggest that A. simplex proteins can change cytokine profiles and may have a preventive effect in DSS-induced CD mice.


KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal