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Volume 39(2); June 2024
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Editorial
Coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pediatric patients in Korea: insights and implications
Yu Jin Jung
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):81-82.   Published online June 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.122
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PDFPubReader   ePub   
Review articles
Bone-modifying agents for bone metastasis in patients with breast cancer
Lee Chun Park, Eun Mi Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):83-88.   Published online June 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.121
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The bone is the most common location of breast cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis causes pain and skeletal-related events (SREs), and affects the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. Bone-modifying agents, including bisphosphonates and denosumab, reduce the risk of SREs in these patients. Among bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid is preferred due to its higher efficacy. Denosumab is marginally more effective than zoledronic acid in reducing the frequency of SREs. Patients with renal impairment should receive zoledronic acid with caution due to nephrotoxicity, and denosumab is an alternative option in these patients. Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a rare but severe complication of both zoledronic acid and denosumab, and all patients should undergo dental examinations before and during treatment. Although these drugs can reduce the risk of SREs in bone metastasis, no significant improvement in survival has been noted. This study reviews the effects and adverse events of bone-modifying agents for the treatment of bone metastasis from breast cancer.
Treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea
Tae Kyung Koh, Jooyeon Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):89-93.   Published online June 21, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.120
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In the majority of cases, pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Therefore, adenotonsillectomy is typically considered as the first line of treatment. However, the severity of pediatric OSA is not always directly correlated with the size of the adenoids and tonsils. Other factors, such as upper airway anatomy or obesity, may interact in a multifactorial manner to contribute to its occurrence. For these reasons, sleep apnea in obese children may resemble the condition in adults. Furthermore, in these cases, if adenotonsillar hypertrophy is present, adenotonsillectomy is likely to be prioritized. Reevaluation should be conducted 6 to 8 weeks post-surgery, and additional treatment for residual sleep apnea should be performed thereafter when necessary.
Surgical management of recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion by papillary thyroid carcinoma
Jae Hong Park, Hyoung Shin Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):94-98.   Published online June 18, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.117
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a priority for surgeons during thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). RLN invasion by PTC in a patient presenting with preoperative vocal fold paralysis may require resection of the nerve with the tumor. However, the decision should be made regarding whether to preserve or sacrifice a functioning RLN invaded by PTC. Under certain conditions, preservation of the nerve with incomplete tumor resection could be considered. An RLN that has been resected due to PTC invasion may be managed by various reinnervation techniques to improve vocal outcomes. This article reviews clinical considerations and rationales for surgical decisions related to patients with PTC invasion of the RLN.
Original articles
Clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in Korean pediatric patients: a single-center retrospective study
Ji Eun Jeong, Hai Lee Chung, Young Hwan Kim, Nawon Lee, Younghyun Kim, Yoon Young Jang
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):99-111.   Published online June 10, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.106
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
To address the public’s fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), understanding the clinical features of the disease is essential. However, research on the clinical features of COVID-19, including illness duration and post-acute COVID-19, in Korean pediatric patients has been limited. Therefore, this study investigated the clinical features of COVID-19 based on the medical records of pediatric patients with a history of COVID-19 who visited a single center.
Methods
In total, 311 patients were included in this study. The presence and duration of 19 symptoms were examined. Additionally, clinical features were investigated by dividing the patients into different age ranges. Patients aged 6 and above were further categorized according to the presence of asthma, while adolescent patients were divided into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups.
Results
Fever and cough were the most common symptoms. The mean illness duration was 2–4 days. Only 3.5% of the patients were asymptomatic. Post-acute COVID-19 was observed in 13.2% of the patients. The incidence of most symptoms tended to increase with age. Post-acute COVID-19 was observed more frequently in patients with asthma than in those without asthma. Vaccinated patients experienced less fever, vomiting, and fatigue than unvaccinated patients.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that most patients had mild disease lasting less than a week, and the clinical course may differ depending on the presence of asthma. The findings also indicate that vaccination may alleviate the symptoms of COVID-19 in breakthrough infections.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pediatric patients in Korea: insights and implications
    Yu Jin Jung
    Kosin Medical Journal.2024; 39(2): 81.     CrossRef
Statins as a possible factor affecting fluoroquinolone resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in the conjunctiva: a case-control study
Yoo Rha Hong, Chi Eun Oh, Sang Joon Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):112-119.   Published online June 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.152
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Conjunctival bacterial flora is a common cause of endophthalmitis after ophthalmic procedures. This study investigated the conjunctival bacterial flora, especially coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), and their antibiotic sensitivity in patients who underwent ophthalmic procedures. Factors related to fluoroquinolone resistance were also investigated.
Methods
In total, 167 samples were analyzed from 135 patients who underwent cataract surgery or intravitreal injection at Kosin University Gospel Hospital between April 14, 2014, and September 29, 2016. Bacterial identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or VITEK 2 equipment. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using an AST-P600 card with VITEK 2 equipment. Clinical information was extracted from patients’ medical records. Sixty-eight individuals with conjunctival flora containing CoNS were classified into the fluoroquinolone-sensitive and fluoroquinolone-resistant CoNS groups, and their characteristics were compared.
Results
A total of 192 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria were identified, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (33.3%), Corynebacterium spp. (18.8%), and CoNS other than S. epidermidis (9.2%). Of the 106 CoNS isolates, 68.9%, 69.8%, and 58.5% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin, respectively. In patients with CoNS, statin use within 3 months before sample collection was significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance (p=0.016). Statin use was a significant risk factor for fluoroquinolone resistance in multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 4.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–18.91; p=0.022).
Conclusions
CoNS, including S. epidermidis, was the most common conjunctival bacterial flora, with a fluoroquinolone sensitivity rate ranging from 58.5% to 69.8% in patients undergoing ophthalmic procedures. Statin use was a significant risk factor for fluoroquinolone resistance.
Orbital complications of acute rhinosinusitis in adults: a 21-year experience
Yung Jin Jeon, Woohyen Jin, Yeon-Hee Joo, Hyun-Jin Cho, Sang-Wook Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):120-126.   Published online June 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.24.111
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Orbital complications arising from acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) are a major concern for clinicians and serve as important warning indicators of ARS. Prompt recognition and appropriate management are crucial for preventing potential vision-threatening sequelae. Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis are markedly more common in children than in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of orbital complications of ARS in adult patients.
Methods
This retrospective observational cohort study analyzed the medical records of 176 patients admitted for orbital cellulitis/abscess (ICD code: H050) who underwent orbit or paranasal computed tomography from January 2001 to February 2022 at a tertiary hospital.
Results
Eighteen adults with a mean age of 53.2±18.9 years were diagnosed with orbital complications due to ARS: five (27.8%) had preseptal cellulitis, eight (44.4%) had orbital cellulitis, and five (27.8%) had subperiosteal orbital abscess. None of the patients had an orbital abscess or cavernous sinus thrombosis. All patients had unilateral orbital complications (7 right and 11 left) and were managed with intravenous antibiotics for an average of 10.3±6.6 days. Five patients with subperiosteal orbital abscesses underwent intranasal endoscopic drainage at an average of 1.4±1.9 days after admission, while two patients required additional external drainage. Complete recovery was observed in all patients.
Conclusions
Conservative antimicrobial therapy can be effective for treating orbital complications from ARS, and not all adult patients require immediate surgical intervention for subperiosteal abscesses. Nonetheless, careful monitoring is essential, and an ophthalmologist must check patients’ visual acuity to prevent irreversible blindness.
Case reports
Cardiovascular collapse during transcatheter aortic valve replacement in monitored anesthesia care using an end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor: a case report
Wonjin Lee, Jaewoo Suh
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):127-131.   Published online January 2, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.134
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Capnography is commonly used to monitor respiration during general anesthesia. However, it has limited utility in patients with respiratory distress during sedation. This case report examines capnography use in a transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedure performed on an elderly woman with severe aortic stenosis. A 73-year-old woman with a history of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and congenital heart failure presented with severe dyspnea caused by severe aortic stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement was preferred over surgery due to her comorbidities. Monitored anesthesia care was administered with a capnogram. During the procedure, the patient was sedated with remimazolam, maintaining a bispectral index range of 60–80 and a score of 2 on the Modified Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. Although irregular breathing patterns and a gradual decrease in oxygen saturation were observed following remimazolam infusion, the patient’s respiration eventually stabilized. However, the patient experienced cardiovascular collapse 45 minutes after sedation began. The arterial carbon dioxide pressure measured by arterial blood gas analysis performed just before resuscitation was 68.4 mmHg. After one cycle of resuscitation, the patient recovered. The procedure was successfully performed under general anesthesia, which was replaced with monitored anesthesia care during resuscitation. Although most monitoring devices have similar utility for both general anesthesia and sedation, capnography has limitations for evaluating respiration during sedation, especially for patients with respiratory distress. Therefore, anesthesiologists or medical staff who provide sedation should not neglect periodical arterial carbon dioxide pressure observations via other methods, such as arterial blood gas analysis.
Interpedicular approach in percutaneous sacroplasty for treating pain due to direct invasion of rectal cancer into the S3 body: a case report
Jinseok Yeo, Saeyoung Kim, Chang Sub Lee
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):132-137.   Published online February 20, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.153
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Percutaneous sacroplasty is mainly used as an intervention for pain associated with sacral insufficiency fractures or sacral metastatic tumors. However, sacroplasty for managing the pain associated with direct sacral invasion of rectal cancer has been rarely reported. We present a case of a 74-year-old patient who underwent sacroplasty via the interpedicular approach under fluoroscopic guidance to relieve pain resulting from direct tumor invasion into the S3 body. After the procedure, the patient experienced immediate pain relief and did not feel worse pain with ambulation. Aside from peritumoral vascular leakage, no other significant complications occurred immediately post-procedure. Our results suggest that fluoroscopically guided interpedicular sacroplasty is a safe and effective option for relieving the pain associated with direct sacral invasion by rectal cancer.
Disseminated herpes zoster with vagus nerve involvement in a kidney transplant recipient: a case report
Dong Eon Kim, Da Woon Kim, Hyo Jin Kim, Harin Rhee, Sang Heon Song, Eun Young Seong
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):138-143.   Published online February 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.154
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Herpes zoster virus infection is common and results in significant morbidity in patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation. Herpes zoster can involve the cranial nerves, and vagus nerve involvement is an infrequent primary manifestation of herpes zoster. Here, we describe a rare presentation of disseminated herpes zoster infection with vagus nerve involvement in a kidney transplant recipient. A 62-year-old man who had undergone kidney transplantation 3 years prior presented to our clinic with sore throat and hoarseness, followed by multiple vesicular-pustular rashes on the face and trunk. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed left paramedian vocal cord paralysis with multiple ulcerative lesions extending from the left pyriform sinus to the epiglottis. Computed tomography of the neck, abdomen, and chest revealed no significant abnormalities that could have caused vocal cord paralysis. We confirmed the diagnosis of disseminated herpes zoster after herpes zoster laryngitis based on positive blood tests and polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus antibodies. The skin rashes and laryngeal ulcers rapidly resolved after treatment with intravenous acyclovir and high-dose steroids. The patient still had persistent dysphagia and microaspiration as assessed by a video fluoroscopic swallowing study, but showed improvement in dysphagia in response to swallowing rehabilitation therapy. This case provides valuable insights into the presenting symptoms of disseminated herpes zoster, which can cause acute vagus neuritis in solid organ transplantation recipients.
Total intravenous anesthesia using remimazolam for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a case series
Jimin Lee, Ji-Uk Yoon, Gyeong-Jo Byeon, Hong-Sik Shon, Ahhyeon Yi, Hee Young Kim
Kosin Med J. 2024;39(2):144-149.   Published online May 9, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7180/kmj.23.156
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Abstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Patients with heart failure undergoing surgery that requires general anesthesia face substantial perioperative risks; however, clear guidelines are not available for anesthesia management in patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Traditional intravenous and volatile anesthetics require careful administration to prevent severe hypotension and bradycardia in patients with heart failure. Remimazolam has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional anesthetics because of its reduced cardiovascular depressive effects. We present three cases illustrating the successful use of remimazolam to induce and maintain general anesthesia in patients with heart failure and reduced cardiac function. Our cases demonstrate the safe use of remimazolam for general anesthesia in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction.

KMJ : Kosin Medical Journal